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M.J. Rupar, T. Sasserath, E. Smith, B. Comiter, N. Sriram, C.J. Long, C.W. McAleer, J.J. Hickman, “Development of a human malaria-on-a-chip disease model for drug efficacy and off-target toxicity evaluation,” (accepted to Scientific Reports, 2023).


J.W. Rumsey, C. Lorance, M. Jackson, T. Sasserath, C.W. McAleer, C.J. Long, A. Goswami, M.A. Russo, S.M. Raja, K.L. Gable, D. Emmett, L.D. Hobson-Webb, M. Chopra, J.F. Howard, Jr., J.T. Guptill, M.J. Storek, M. Alonso-Alonso, N. Atassi, S. Panicker, G. Parry, T. Hammond, J.J. Hickman, “Classical complement pathway inhibition in a ‘human-on-a-chip’ model of autoimmune demyelinating neuropathies,” Advanced Therapeutics 2022:2200030 (2022). DOI: 10.1002/adtp.202200030

T. Sasserath, A.L. Robertson, R. Mendez, T.T. Hays, E. Smith, H. Cooper, N. Akanda, J.W. Rumsey, X. Guo, M. Might, S. Rodems, K. Baumgaertel, M. Pradhan, W. Zheng, A. Farkhondeh and J.J. Hickman, “An induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NMJ platform for study of the NGLY1-congenital disorder of deglycosylation,” Advanced Therapeutics, 2022: 2200009 (1-17) (2022). DOI: 10.1002/adtp.202200009

A. Badu-Mensah, X. Guo, S. Nimbalkar, Y. Cai, J.J. Hickman. “ALS mutations in both human skeletal muscle and motoneurons differentially affects neuromuscular junction integrity and function,” Biomaterials, 289:121752 (2022). DOI:

A. Badu-Mensah P. Valinski, H. Parsaud, J.J. Hickman, X. Guo. “Hyperglycemia negatively affects IPSC-derived myoblast proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration and function,” Cells, 11:3674 (2022). DOI: 10.3390/cells11223674

S. Nimbalkar, X. Guo, A. Colón, M. Jackson, N. Akanda, A. Patel, M. Grillo and J.J. Hickman, “Development of a functional human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived nociceptor MEA system as a pain model for analgesic drug testing”, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology-Stem Cell Research, 11:1011145 (2023). doi: 10.3389/fcell.2023.1011145

Autar K, Guo X, Rumsey JW, Long CJ, Akanda N, Jackson M, Narasimhan NS, Caneus J, Morgan D, Hickman JJ. A functional hiPSC-cortical neuron differentiation and maturation model and its application to neurological disorders. Stem Cell Reports. 2022 Jan 11;17(1):96-109. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.11.009.


Oleaga C, Bridges LR, Persaud K, McAleer CW, Long CJ, Hickman JJ. A functional long-term 2D serum-free human hepatic in vitro system for drug evaluation. Biotechnol Prog. 2021 Jan;37(1):e3069. doi: 10.1002/btpr.3069.

Slaughter VL, Rumsey JW, Boone R, Malik D, Cai Y, Sriram NN, Long CJ, McAleer CW, Lambert S, Shuler ML, Hickman JJ. Validation of an adipose-liver human-on-a-chip model of NAFLD for preclinical therapeutic efficacy evaluation. Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 23;11(1):13159. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92264-2.

Badu-Mensah A, Guo X, Hickman JJ. ALS Skeletal Muscle: Victim or Culprit. Neurosci Chron. 2021;2(2):31-33. doi: 10.46439/neuroscience.2.012.

Smith VM, Nguyen H, Rumsey JW, Long CJ, Shuler ML, Hickman JJ. A Functional Human-on-a-Chip Autoimmune Disease Model of Myasthenia Gravis for Development of Therapeutics. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 Nov 22;9:745897. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2021.745897.


A. Patel, J.W. Rumsey, C. Lorance, C.J. Long, B. Lee, L. Tetard, S. Lambert and J.J. Hickman, “Myelination and node of Ranvier formation in a human motoneuron – schwann cell serum-free co-culture,” ACS Chem Neurosci In Press, Online First doi=10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00287, 2020).

C. Oleaga, V. Platt, L.R. Bridges, K. Persaud, C. McAleer, C. Long and J.J. Hickman, “A functional long-term serum-free human hepatic in vitro system for drug evaluation,” (Submitted to Biotechnol Prog, Accepted 2020.

Najjar SA, Smith AST, Long CJ, McAleer CW, Cai Y, Srinivasan B, Martin C, Vandenburgh HH, Hickman JJ. A multiplexed in vitro assay system for evaluating human skeletal muscle functionality in response to drug treatment. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2020 Mar;117(3):736-747. doi: 10.1002/bit.27231.

Colón A, Badu-Mensah A, Guo X, Goswami A, Hickman JJ. Differentiation of Intrafusal Fibers from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020 Apr 1;11(7):1085-1092. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00055.

Pires de Mello CP, Carmona-Moran C, McAleer CW, Perez J, Coln EA, Long CJ, Oleaga C, Riu A, Note R, Teissier S, Langer J, Hickman JJ. Microphysiological heart-liver body-on-a-chip system with a skin mimic for evaluating topical drug delivery. Lab Chip. 2020 Feb 21;20(4):749-759. doi: 10.1039/c9lc00861f. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

T. Sasserath, J. W. Rumsey, C. W. McAleer, L. R. Bridges, C. J. Long, D. Elbrecht, F. Schuler, A. Roth, C. Bertinetti-LaPatki, M. L. Shuler, J. J. Hickman, “Differential Monocyte Actuation in a Three-Organ Functional Innate Immune System-on-a-Chip,” Adv. Sci. 7:2000323 (2020).

Caneus J, Akanda N, Rumsey JW, Guo X, Jackson M, Long CJ, Sommerhage F, Georgieva S, Kanaan NM, Morgan D, Hickman JJ. A human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neuron human-on-a chip system to study Aβ42 and tau-induced pathophysiological effects on long-term potentiation. Alzheimers Dement (N Y). 2020 May 27;6(1):e12029. doi: 10.1002/trc2.12029.

M.T. Schnepper, J. Roles and J.J. Hickman, “Characterization of drug-polymer adsorption isotherms in body-on-a-chip systems by inverse liquid-solid chromatography,” ACS Biomaterials Sci Eng, In Press, Online First doi=10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00350, 2020).

Guo X, Smith V, Jackson M, Tran M, Thomas M, Patel A, Lorusso E, Nimbalkar S, Cai Y, McAleer CW, Wang Y, Long CJ, Hickman JJ. A Human-Based Functional NMJ System for Personalized ALS Modeling and Drug Testing. Adv Ther (Weinh). 2020 Nov;3(11):2000133. doi: 10.1002/adtp.202000133.
Schnepper M, Roles J, Hickman JJ. Inverse liquid-solid chromatography to evaluate drug interactions with organosilane-modified polydimethylsiloxane for use in body-on-a-chip systems. Biotechnol Prog. 2020 Nov;36(6):e3048. doi: 10.1002/btpr.3048.

M.T. Schnepper, J. Roles and J.J. Hickman, “Inverse liquid solid chromatography to evaluate drug interactions with organosilane modified polydimethylsiloxane for use in body-on-a-chip systems,” Biotechnol Prog, In Press, 2020).

Badu-Mensah A, Guo X, McAleer CW, Rumsey JW, Hickman JJ. Functional skeletal muscle model derived from SOD1-mutant ALS patient iPSCs recapitulates hallmarks of disease progression.
Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 31;10(1):14302. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-70510-3.

K. Autar, X. Guo, J.W. Rumsey, C. Long, N. Akanda, M. Jackson, N.S. Narasimhan, J. Caneus, D. Morgan, J.J. Hickman, “A functional hiPSC-cortical neuron differentiation and maturation model and its application to neurological disorders,” (Submitted to Cell Stem Cell 2020).

Guo X, Badu-Mensah A, Thomas MC, McAleer CW, Hickman JJ. Characterization of Functional Human Skeletal Myotubes and Neuromuscular Junction Derived-From the Same Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Source. Bioengineering (Basel). 2020 Oct 22;7(4):133. doi: 10.3390/bioengineering7040133.
Patel A, Rumsey JW, Lorance C, Long CJ, Lee B, Tetard L, Lambert S, Hickman JJ. Myelination and Node of Ranvier Formation in a Human Motoneuron-Schwann Cell Serum-Free Coculture. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020 Sep 2;11(17):2615-2623. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00287.

Characterization of Drug-Polymer Adsorption Isotherms in Body-on-a-Chip Systems by Inverse Liquid-Solid Chromatography. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2020 Aug 10;6(8):4462-4475. doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00350.

Bridges LR, Long CJ, Elbrecht D, Schuler F, Roth A, Bertinetti-LaPatki C, Shuler ML, Hickman JJ. Differential Monocyte Actuation in a Three-Organ Functional Innate Immune System-on-a-Chip. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2020 Jun 2;7(13):2000323. doi: 10.1002/advs.202000323.


C. Oleaga, A. Lavado, A. Riu, S. Rothemund, C.A. Carmona-Moran, K. Persaud, A. Yurko, J. Lear, N.S. Narasimhan, C.J. Long, F. Sommerhage, L.R. Bridges, Y. Cai, C. Martin, M.T. Schnepper, A. Goswami, R. Note, J. Langer, S. Teissier, J. Cotovio and J.J. Hickman, “Long-Term Electrical and Mechanical Function Monitoring of a Human-on-a-Chip System,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 2018:1805792 (2019) DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201805792.

J.H. Sung, Y. Wang, N.S. Narasimhan, M. Jackson, C. Long, J.J. Hickman, M.L. Shuler, “Recent Advances in Body-on-a-Chip Systems,” Anal. Chem. 91:330-351 (2019) DOI:10.1021/acs.analchem.8b05293.

N. Azim, C. Hart, F. Sommerhage, M. Aubin, A. Nguyen, J. Hickman and S. Rajaraman, “Precision Plating of Human Electrogenic Cells on Microelectrodes Enhanced with Precision Electrodeposited Nano-Porous Platinum for Cell-based Biosensing Applications,” IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst. 28(1):50-62 (2019) DOI: 10.1109/JMEMS.2018.2879577

C.W. McAleer, C.J. Long, D. Elbrecht, T. Sasserath, L.R. Bridges, J.W. Rumsey, C. Martin, M. Schnepper, Y. Wang, F. Schuler, A.B. Roth, C. Funk, M.L. Shuler, J.J. Hickman, “Multi-Organ System for the Evaluation of efficacy and off-target toxicity of Anti-Cancer Therapeutics,” Sci. Trans. Med. 11:eaav1386 (2019).

C.W. McAleer, A. Pointon, C.J. Long, R. Brighton, B. Wilkin, L.R. Bridges, K. Fabre, R. McDougall, V.P. Muse, J.T. Mettetal, A. Srivastava, D.P. Williams, M. Schnepper, J. Roles, M.L. Shuler, J.J. Hickman, L. Ewart, “On the Potential of In Vitro Organ-Chip Models to Define Temporal Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationships,” Sci. Rep. 9:9619 (2019)

M. Gonzalez, X. Guo, M. Lin, M. Stancescu, P. Molnar, S. Spradling and J.J. Hickman, “Polarity Induced in Human Stem Cell Derived Motoneurons on Patterned Self-Assembled Monolayers,” ACS Chem. Neurosci. 10:2756-2764 (2019).

C.P. Pires de Mello, J. Rumsey, V. Slaughter and J.J. Hickman, “A Human-on-a-Chip Approach to Tackling Rare Diseases,” DRUDIS 24:2139-2151 (2019).

C. Oleaga, G. Jalilvand, G. Legters, C. Martin, G. Eckman, C.J. Long, J.J. Hickman, “A Human In Vitro Platform for the Study of Pharmacology Strategies in Cardiac Ischemia,” APL Bioeng. 3, 036103 (2019); doi: 10.1063/1.5089237).

E. LoRusso, J.J. Hickman, X. Guo, “Ion channel dysfunction and altered motoneuron excitability in ALS,” Neurological Disorder and Epilepsy Journal 2(2):124 (2019).

E.A. Coln, A. Colon, C.J. Long, N. Narasimhan Sriram, M. Esch, J.-M. Prot, D.H. Elbrecht, Y. Wang, M. Jackson, M.L. Shuler, J.J. Hickman, “Piezoelectric BioMEMS Cantilever for Measurement of Muscle Contraction and for Actuation of Mechanosensitive Cells,” MRS Commun. 9(4):1186-1192 (2019). DOI:

J.J. Hickman, D. Huh, and R.D. Kamm, “Guest Editorial: Microphysiological Systems,” APL Bioengineering 3: 040401 (2019). DOI: 10.1063/1.5130170.


Carlota Oleaga, Andrea Lavado, Anne Riu, Sandra Rothemund, Carlos A. Carmona-Moran, Keisha Persaud, Andrew Yurko, Jennifer Lear, Narasimhan Sriram Narasimhan, Christopher J. Long, Frank Sommerhage, Lee Richard Bridges, Yunqing Cai, Candace Martin, Mark T. Schnepper, Arindom Goswami, Reine Note, Jessica Langer, Silvia Teissier, José Cotovio, and James J. Hickman* Long-Term Electrical and Mechanical Function Monitoring of a Human-on-a-Chip System. Advanced Functional Materials

L. Ewart, E.-M. Dehne, K. Fabre, Susan Gibbs, J. Hickman, E. Hornberg, M. Ingelman-Sundberg, K.-J. Jang, D.R. Jones, V.M. Lauschke, U. Marx, Jerome T. Mettetal, A. Pointon, D. Williams, W.-H. Zimmermann, and P. Newham, “Application of Microphysiological Systems to Enhance Safety Assessment in Drug Discovery,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 58:65-82 (2018).

J. van der Valk, K. Bieback, C. Buta, B. Cochrane, W.G. Dirks, J. Fu, J.J. Hickman, C. Hohensee, R. Kolar, M. Liebsch, F. Pistollato, M. Schulz, D. Thieme, T. Weber, J. Wiest, S. Winkler and G. Gstraunthaler, “Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) Past – Present – Future,” ALTEX 35:99-118 (2018)

N. Santhanam, L. Kumanchik, X. Guo, F. Sommerhage, Y. Cai, M. Jackson, C. Martin, G. Saad, C.W. McAleer, Y. Wang, A. Lavado, C.J. Long, J.J. Hickman, “Stem Cell Derived Phenotypic Human Neuromuscular Junction Model for Dose Response Evaluation of Therapeutics,” Biomaterials 166:64-78, 2018.

B. Berry, A.S.T. Smith, C. J. Long, C. Martin and J.J. Hickman, “Physiological Aβ Concentrations Produce a More Biomimetic Representation of the Alzheimer’s Disease Phenotype in iPSC Derived Human Neurons,” ACS Chem Neurosci in press, 2018.


X. Guo, A. Colon, N. Akanda, S. Spradling, M. Stancescu, C. Martin, J.J. Hickman, “Tissue Engineering the Mechanosensory Circuit of the Stretch Reflex Arc with Human Stem Cells: Sensory Neuron Innervation of Intrafusal Muscle Fibers,” Biomaterials 122:179-187 (2017).

Y. Wang, C. Oleaga, C. Long, M.B. Esch, C. McAleer, P.G. Miller; J.J. Hickman and M.L. Shuler, “Self-contained, Low-cost Body-on-a-Chip Systems for Drug Development,” Experimental Biology and Medicine Online 0:1-13 DOI:10.1177/1535370217694101 (2017).

J. van der Valk, K. Bieback, C. Buta, B. Cochrane, W.G. Dirks, J. Fu, J.J. Hickman, C. Hohensee, R. Kolar, M. Liebsch, F. Pistollato, M. Schulz, D. Thieme, T. Weber, J. Wiest, S. Winkler and G. Gstraunthaler, “Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS): Past – Present – Future,” ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation Online August 9, 2017; doi:10.14573/ altex.1705101 (2017).

Y.I. Wang, C. Carmona, J.J. Hickman and M.L. Shuler, “Multi-Organ Microphysiological Systems for Drug Development: Strategies, Advances and Challenges,” Advanced Healthcare Materials 242: 1701–1713; (2017).

A. Colon, X. Guo, N. Akanda, Y. Cai and J.J. Hickman, “Functional Analysis of Human Intrafusal Fiber Innervation by Human γ-Motoneurons,” Nature Scientific Reports 7:17202; doi:10.1038/s41598-017-17382-2 (2017).

D. Edwards, F. Sommerhage, B. Berry, H. Nummer, B. Clymer, M. Stancescu, J.J. Hickman, “Comparison of NMDA and AMPA Channel Expression and Function between Embryonic and Adult Neurons Utilizing Microelectrode Array Systems,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 3:3525-3533 (2017).

A. Lavado, X. Guo, N. Akanda, C. Martin, Y. Cai, D. Elbrecht, M. Tran, J.-P. Bryant, A. Colon, C.J. Long, S. Lambert, D. Morgan and J.J Hickman, “Evaluation of Holistic Treatment for ALS Reveals Possible Mechanism and Therapeutic Potential,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceuticals 11:348-374 (2017).


Mahler G.J., Esch M.B., Stokol T., J.J. Hickman, M.L. Shuler. 2016. Body-on-a-chip systems for animal-free toxicity testing. Altern Lab Anim.

Sakolish, C.M., M.B. Esch, J.J. Hickman, M.L. Shuler, and G.J. Mahler. 2016. Modeling barrier tissues in vitro: methods, achievements, and challenges. E Bio Medicine. [link]

Sakolish, C.M., M.B. Esch, J.J. Hickman, M.L. Shuler, and G.J. Mahler. 2016. Modeling barrier tissues in vitro: methods, achievements, and challenges. E Bio Medicine.

C. Oleaga, C. Bernabini, A.S.T. Smith, B. Srinivasan, M. Jackson, W. McLamb, V. Platt, R. Bridges, Y. Cai, N. Santhanam, B. Berry, S. Najjar, N. Akanda, X. Guo, C. Martin, G. Ekman, M.B. Esch, J. Langer, G. Ouedraogo, J. Cotovio, L. Breton, M.L. Shuler and J.J. Hickman “Multi-Organ toxicity demonstration in a functional human in vitro system composed of four organs” Scientific Reports (6):20030 (2016)


Srinivasan, B., Kolli, A.R., Esch, M.B., Abaci, H.E., Shuler, M.L., and J.J. Hickman. 2015. TEER measurement techniques for in vitro barrier model systems. J Lab Automation. 20:107-126

C.W. McAleer, A.S.T. Smith, S. Najjar, K. Pirozzi, C.J. Long and J.J. Hickman, “Mechanistic Investigation of Adult Myotube Response to Exercise and Drug Treatment in Vitro Using a Multiplexed Functional Assay System,” J Appl Physiol 117(11):1398-1405 (2015).

B. Srinivasan, A.R. Kolli, M.B. Esch, H.E. Abaci, M.L. Shuler and J.J. Hickman, “TEER Measurement Techniques for Organs-On-Chips Systems,” JALA 20(2):107-126 (2015).

C. McAleer, J.W. Rumsey, M. Stancescu and J.J. Hickman, “Functional Myotube Formation from Adult Rat Satellite Cells in a Defined Serum-Free System,” Biotechnology Progress 31(4):997-1003 (2015).

M. Stancescu, P. Molnar, C. McAleer, W. McLamb, C. Long, C. Oleaga, J.-M. Prot and J.J. Hickman, “In Vitro Model of Whole Heart Function,” Biomaterials 60:20-30 (2015).

B.J. Berry, N. Akanda, A.S.T. Smith, C.J. Long, M.T. Schnepper, X. Guo and J.J. Hickman, “Functional Characterization of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Neurons in Different Defined Culture Systems,” Biotechnology Progress in press (2015).


C.W. McAleer, A.S.T. Smith, S. Najjar, K. Pirozzi, C.J. Long and J.J. Hickman, “Mechanistic Investigation of Adult Myotube Response to Exercise and Drug Treatment in Vitro Using a Multiplexed Functional Assay System,” J Appl Physiol 117(11):1398-1405 (2014).

Esch, M.B., Smith, A., Prot, J.M., Oleaga, C., Hickman, J., and Shuler, M.L. 2014. How Multi-Organ Microdevices Can Help Foster Drug Development. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 69-70 (2014) 158-169.

Shuler, M.L. and J.J. Hickman. 2014. Toward in virtro models of brain structure and function. PNAS. 111(38): 13682-13683.

Sung, J.H., Srinivasan, B., Esch, M.B., McLamb, W.T., Bernabini, C., Shuler, M.L., and J.J. Hickman. 2014. Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic-guided “body-on-a-chip” systems to predict mammalian response to drug and chemical exposure. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 239:1225-1239.

X. Guo, K. Greene, N. Akanda, A.S.T. Smith, M. Stancescu, S. Lambert, H. Vandenburgh, and J.J. Hickman, “In vitro Differentiation of Functional Human Skeletal Myotubes in a Defined System,” Biomaterials Science 2:131-138 (2014).

A.S.T. Smith, C.J. Long, B.J. Berry, C. McAleer, M. Stancescu, P. Molnar, P.G. Miller, M.B. Esch, J.-M. Prot, J.J. Hickman and M.L. Shuler, “Microphysiological systems and low cost microfluidic platform with analytics,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy in press (2014).

M. B. Esch, A.S.T. Smith,J.-M. Prot, C. Oleaga, J.J. Hickman and M.L. Shuler “How Multi-Organ Microdevices Can Help Foster Drug Development” ADDR in press (2014).

J.H. Sung, M.B. Esch, W.T. McLamb, C. Bernabini, B. Srinivasan, M.L. Shuler and J.J. Hickman, “Using PBPK guided “Body-on-a-Chip” Systems to Predict Mammalian Response to Drug and Chemical Exposure,” accepted to Experimental Biology and Medicine (2014).

A.S.T. Smith, C.J. Long, C. McAleer, N. Bobbitt, B. Srinivasan and J.J. Hickman, “Utilization of microscale silicon cantilevers to assess cellular contractile function in vitro,” accepted to JoVE (2014).

M. Ramalingam, P, Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Surface Patterning of Biomaterials to Control Cell Behavior,” Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology(ENN) American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, California, in press.


Smith, A.S., Long, C.J., Berry, B.J., Mcaleer, C., Molnar, P., Miller, P.G., Esch, M.B., Prot, J.M., Hickman, J.J. and Shuler, M.L. 2013. Microphysiological systems and low-cost microfluidic platform with analytics. Stem Cell Res Ther. DOI: 10.1186/scrt370. PMID: 24565109. Epub 2013 Dec 20

Angus, et al. 2013. A physical sciences network characterization of non-tumorigenic and metastatic cells, Sci. Rep. 3:14493 DOI:10.1038/srep01449

S.A. Khan, V. Thakore, A. Behal, L. Bölöni and J.J. Hickman, “Comparative analysis of system identification techniques for nonlinear modeling of the neuron-microelectrode junction,” Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, 10(3):573-580 (2013).

A. Natarajan, T. DeMarse, P. Molnar, J.J. Hickman, “Engineered In Vitro Feed-Forward Networks,” Journal of Biotechnology and Biomaterials 3(1):153 (2013).

X. Guo, S. Spradling, M. Stancescu, S. Lambert, J.J. Hickman, “Derivation of sensory neurons and neural crest stem cells from human neural progenitor hNP1,” Biomaterials 34:4418-4427 (2013).

J.H. Sung, M.B. Esch, J.-M. Prot, C.J. Long, A. Smith, J.J. Hickman and M.L. Shuler, “Microfabricated mammalian organ systems and their integration into models of whole animals and humans,” Lab on a Chip 13:1201-1212 (2013).

C. Finch, T. Clarke, and J.J. Hickman, “A Continuum Hard-Sphere Model of Protein Adsorption,” Journal of Computational Physics, 244:212-222 (2013).

J.W. Rumsey, C. McAleer, M. Das, A. Bhalkikar, K. Wilson, M. Stancescu, S. Lambert, J.J. Hickman, “Myelination and node of Ranvier formation on sensory neurons in a defined in vitro system,” In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim, 49:608-618 (2013).

K.L. Pirozzi C.J. Long, C.W. McAleer, A.S.T. Smith and J.J. Hickman, “Correlation of embryonic skeletal muscle myotube physical characteristics with contractile force generation on an Atomic Force Microscopy-based bio- Microelectromechanical systems device,” Applied Physics Letters, 103:083108 (2013).

D. Edwards, M. Stancescu, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Two cell networks of oriented adult hippocampal neurons on self-assembled monolayers for use in the study of neuronal communication in a defined system,” ACS Chemical Neuroscience 4:1174-1182 (2013) DOI: 10.1021/cn300206k

A.S.T. Smith, C.J. Long, Kristen Pirozzi and J.J. Hickman, “Development of a functional system for high-content screening of neuromuscular junctions,” Technology, 1(1):37-48 (2013).


K.A. Wilson, C. A. Finch, P. Anderson, F. Vollmer, and J.J. Hickman, “Whispering Gallery Mode Biosensor Quantification of Fibronectin Adsorption Kinetics onto Alkylsilane Monolayers and Interpretation of Resultant Cellular Response” Biomaterials 33:225-236 (2012).

H. Davis, X. Guo, S. Lambert, M. Stancescu and J.J. Hickman, “Small Molecule Induction of Human Umbilical Stem Cells into MBP-Positive Oligodendrocytes in a Defined Three-Dimensional Environment,” ACS Chemical Neuroscience 3:31-39 (2012).

X. Guo, J.E. Ayala1, M. Gonzalez, M. Stancescu, S. Lambert, J.J. Hickman, “Tissue engineering the monosynaptic circuit of the stretch reflex arc with co-culture of embryonic motoneurons and proprioceptive sensory neurons,” Biomaterials 33(23):5723-5731 (2012).

C. Long, C. Finch, M. Esch, W. Anderson, M. Shuler and J.J. Hickman, “Design Optimization of Liquid-Phase Flow Patterns for Microfabricated Lung On A Chip,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering 40(6):1255-1267 (2012).

H. Davis, M. Gonzalez, N. Bhargava, M. Stancescu, J.J. Hickman, and S. Lambert, “Rat Cortical Oligodendrocyte–Embryonic Motoneuron Co-culture: An in vitro Axon-Oligodendrocyte Interaction Model,” Journal of Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering 2(3):206-214 (2012).

V. Thakore, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “An Optimization Based Study of Equivalent Circuit Models for Representing Recordings at the Neuron-Electrode Interface,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 59(8):2338-2347 (2012).

C. Wang, J. Reed, L. Ma, Y. Qiao, Y. Luo, S. Zou, J.J. Hickman and M. Su, “Biomimic Light Trapping Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Laser Desorption/Ionization of peptides,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116(29):15415-15420 (2012).

C.N. Baker, D.G. Taylor, K. Osuala, A. Natarajan, P. Molnar, J.J. Hickman, S. Alam, B. Moscato, D. Weinshenker, and S.N. Ebert, “Adrenergic deficiency leads to impaired electrical conduction and increased arrhythmic potential in the embryonic mouse heart,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 423(3):536-541 (2012).

X. Guo, J.J. Hickman. “Treatment of ALS utilizing a stem cell strategy” in Motor Neuron Diseases: Causes, Classification and Treatments Eds. B.J. Turner, J.B. Atkin, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, New York. pp.115-136 (2012).


K. Wilson, M. Stancescu, M. Das, J.W. Rumsey and J.J. Hickman, “Direct Patterning of Coplanar Peg Alkylsilane Monolayers by Deep –Ultraviolet Photolithograpy as a General Method for Long-Term Cell Patterning and Culture,” JVST B 29(2):021020 (2011).

A. Natarajan, M. Stancescu, V. Dhir, C. Armstrong, F. Sommerhage, J.J. Hickman and P. Molnar, “Patterned Cardiomyocytes on Microelectrode Arrays as a Device for Studying Cardiac Electrophysiology and Drug Effects,” Biomaterials 32(18):4267-4274 (2011).

X. Guo, M. Gonzalez, M. Stancescu, H. Vandenburgh, J.J. Hickman, “Neuromuscular Junction Formation between Human Stem cell-derived Motoneurons and Human Skeletal Muscle in a Defined System,” Biomaterials 32:9602-9611 (2011).


M.S. Ravenscroft-Chang, J. Stohlman, P. Molnar, A. Natarajan, H.E. Canavan, M. Teliska, M. Stancescu, V. Krauthamer and J.J. Hickman, “Altered Calcium Dynamics in Cardiac Cells Grown on Silane-Modified Surfaces,” Biomaterials 31:602-607 (2010).

C.M. Smith, T.D. Roy, A. Bhalkikar, B. Li, J.J. Hickman and K.H. Church, “Engineering a Titanium and Polycaprolactone Construct for a Biocompatible Interface Between the Body and Artificial Limb,” Tissue Engineering Part A 16(2):717-724 (2010). X.F. Guo, K. Johe, P. Molnar, H. Davis, J.J. Hickman, “Characterization of a Human Spinal Cord Stem Cell Line and Its Induction to Motoneurons,” Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 4:181-193 (2010).

K. Varghese, P. Molnar, M. Das, N. Bhargava, S. Lambert, M.S. Kindy and J.J. Hickman, “A New Target for Amyloid Beta Toxicity Validated by Standard and High-throughput Electrophysiology,” PLoS One 5(1): e8643. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008643 (2010).

M. Das, J.W. Rumsey, N. Bhargava, M. Stancescu and J.J. Hickman, “A Defined Long-Term In Vitro Tissue Engineered Model of Neuromuscular Junctions,” Biomaterials 31:4880-4888 (2010).

K. Wilson, M. Das, K.J. Wahl, R.J. Colton and J.J. Hickman, “Measurement of Contractile Stress Generated by Cultured Muscle on Silicon Cantilevers,” PLoS One 5(6): e11042. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011042 (2010).

D. Edwards, M. Das, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Addition of Glutamate to Serum Free Culture Promotes Recovery of Electrical Activity in Adult Hippocampal Neurons In Vitro,” J Neuroscience Methods 190:155-163 (2010).

L. Chi, J. Yu, H. Zhu, X. Li, S. Zhu, Z. Li, L.C. Pettigrew, D. Grass, J.J. Hickman, M.S. Kindy, “Dual Neuronal Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Following Spinal Cord Injury,” Neural Regeneration Research 5(12):917-926 (2010).

J.W. Rumsey, M. Das, A. Bhalkikar, M. Stancecsu and J.J. Hickman, “Tissue Engineering the Mechanosensory Circuit of the Stretch Reflex Arc: Sensory Neuron Innervation of Intrafusal Muscle Fibers,” Biomaterials 31:8218-8227 (2010).

N. Bhargava, M. Das, D. Edwards, M. Stancescu, J.-F. Kang and J.J. Hickman, “Coexpression of Glutamate Vesicular Transporter (VGLUT1) and Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) Proteins in Embryonic Rat Hippocampal Neurons in Culture,” In Vitro Cell Dev Animal 46:685-692 (2010).

C. Wang, L. Ma, M. Hossain, H. Wang, S. Zou, J.J. Hickman, M. Su, “Direct visualization of molecular scale chemical adsorptions on solids using plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” Sensors and Actuators, B:Chemical 150(2):667-672 (2010).

C. Wang, M. Hossain, L. Ma, Z. Ma, J.J. Hickman, M. Su, “Highly Sensitive Thermal Detection of Thrombin Using Aptamer-Functionalized Phase Change Nanoparticles,” Biosensors & Bioelectronics 26(2):437-43 (2010).

J.C. Henderson, M. Yacopucci, C.J. Chun, K. Lenghaus and J.J. Hickman, “Investigation of the Behavior of Serum Plasma in a Microfluidics System,” JVST B 28(5):1066-1069 (2010).

X. Guo, M. Das, J. Rumsey, M. Gonzalez, M. Stancescu and J.J. Hickman, “Neuromuscular Junction Formation between Human Stem Cell derived Motoneurons and Rat Skeletal Muscle in a Defined System,” Tissue Engineering, Part C 16(6):1347-1355 (2010).

M. Ramalingam, S.S. Liao, S. Ramakrishna, P. Molnar, Z.M. Huang, M. Kotaki, K. Panduranga Rao and J.J. Hickman, “Skeletal Regeneration Nanobiomaterials,” in Biomaterials for Bone, Regenerative Medicine, TTP Publishers, Swiss/USA, (2010).


K. Varghese, M. Das, N. Bhargava, P. Molnar, M.S. Kind and J.J. Hickman, “Regeneration and Characterization of Adult Mouse Hippocampal Neurons in a Defined In Vitro System,” Journal of neuroscience methods 177:51-59 (2009).

M. Ramalingam, P. Molnar, K. P. Rao and J. J. Hickman, “Biomaterial Surface Patterning Utilizing Self Assembled Monolayers to Control Neuronal Cell Behavior,” Int. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Review 2(2):104-134 (2009).

J.W. Rumsey, M. Das, M. Stancescu, M. Bott, C. Fernandez-Valle and J.J. Hickman, “Node of Ranvier Formation on Motoneurons In Vitro,” Biomaterials 30:3567-3572 (2009).

T. Xu, P, Molnar, C. Gregory, M. Das, T. Boland and J.J. Hickman, “Electrophysiological Characterization of Embryonic Hippocampal Neurons Cultured in 3D Collagen Hydrogel,” Biomaterials 30:4377-4383 (2009).

M. Das, J. W. Rumsey, N. Bhargava, M. Stancescu and J.J. Hickman, “Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: An Improved Model Promoting Long Term Survival of Myotubes, Structural Development of E-C Coupling Apparatus and Neonatal Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) Expression,” Biomaterials 30:5392-5402 (2009).

M. Das, J.W. Rumsey, N. Bhargava, C. Gregory, L. Riedel, J.F. Kang, J.J. Hickman, “Developing a Novel Serum-Free Cell Culture Model of Skeletal Muscle Differentiation by Systematically Studying the Role of Different Growth Factors in Myotube Formation,” In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Animal 45:378-387 (2009).

N. Akanda, M. Stancescu, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Analysis of Toxin Induced Changes in Action Potential Shape for Drug Development,” Journal of Biomolecular Screening 14(10):1228-1235 (2009).

N. Bhargava, M. Das, A. S. Karakoti, S. Patil, J.F. Kang, M. Stancescu, M. S. Kindy, S. Seal and J.J. Hickman, “Regeneration of Adult Mice Motoneurons Utilizing a Defined System and Anti-oxidant Nanoparticles,” Journal of Nanoneuroscience 1(2):130-143 (2009).

D.G. Taylor, A. Natarajan, B. Moscato, P. Molnar, J.J. Hickman, S.N. Ebert, “Adrenergic Deficiency Leads to Slowed Ventricular Conduction and Increased Arrhythmias in Embryonic Mouse Hearts,” Circulation 120(18):S616 (2009).


M. Das, N. Bhargava, A. Bhalkikar, J. F. Kang and J. J. Hickman, “Temporal Neurotransmitter Conditioning Restores the Functional Activity of Adult Spinal-Cord Neurons in Long-Term Culture,” Experimental Neurology 209:171-180 (2008).

J.W. Rumsey, M. Das, J.F. Kang, R. Wagner, P. Molnar and J.J Hickman, “Tissue Engineering Intrafusal Fibers: Dose and Time Dependent Differentiation of Nuclear Bag Fibers in a Defined In Vitro System using Neuregulin 1-β-1,” Biomaterials 29:994-1104 (2008).

J. Liu, J.W. Rumsey, P. Molnar, M. Das, C. Gregory, L. Riedel and J.J. Hickman, “Electrophysiological and Immunocytochemical Characterization of DRG Neurons on an Organosilane Surface in Serum Free Medium,” In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology 44:162-168 (2008).

A. Natarajan, C.J. Chun, J.J. Hickman and P. Molnar, “Growth and Electrophysiological Properties of Rat Embryonic Cardiomyocytes on Hydroxyl- and Carboxyl-Modified Surfaces,” Journal of Biomaterials Science: Polymer Edition 19(10):1319-1331 (2008).

V. Thakore, A. Behal, P. Molnar, D.C. Leistritz, and J.J. Hickman, “Nanoscale Nonlinear Dynamic Characterization of the Neuron-Electrode Junction,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5(11):2164-2169 (2008).

J. Rolland, K-S. Lee, A. Mahmood, L. Fluck, J. Duarte, I. Kaya, A. Santhanam, P. Meemon, S. Murali, O. Ilegbusi, P. Kupelian, A.M. Kachurin, W.L. Warren, P. Molnar, J.J. Hickman and P.K. Kolattukudy, Eds J.D. Westwood, R.S. Haluck, H.M.Hoffman, G.T. Mogel, R. Phillips, R.A. Robb and K.G. Vosburgh, “Collaborative Engineering: 3-D Optical Imaging and Gas Exchange Simulation of In-Vitro Alveolar Constructs,” in Studies in Health Technolology Informatics 132:426-432 (2008).

Rolland, J. P., K. S. Lee, A. Mahmood, L. Fluck, J. Duarte, I. Kaya, A. Santhanam, P. Meemon, S. Murali, O. Ilegbusi, P. Kupelian, W. L. Warren, P. Molnar, J. J. Hickman and P. E. Kolattukudy. Collaborative Engineering: 3-D Optical Imaging and Gas Exchange Simulation of In-Vitro Alveolar Constructs. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 16 – parallel, combinatorial, convergent: NextMed by Design. J. D. Westwood, R. S. Haluck, H. M. Hoffmanet al. 132. (2008).

M. Ramalingam, P, Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Nano-Surface Patterning Techniques for Cell Studies,” Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ENN) American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, California, (2008).

M. Ramalingam, S. Ramakrishna and J.J. Hickman, “Cell Responsive Nano-fibrous Materials for Tissue Engineering,” in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, American Scientific Publishers, Ed. Hari Singh Nalwa, Valencia, California, (2008).


M. Das, S. Patil, N. Bhargava, J.F. Kang, L. Riedel, S. Seal and J.J. Hickman, “Auto-catalytic Ceria Nanoparticles Offer Neuroprotection to Adult Rat Spinal Cord Neurons,” Biomaterials 28:1918-1925 (2007).

P. Molnar, W. Wang, A. Natarajan, J.W. Rumsey and J.J. Hickman, “Photolithographic Patterning of C2C12 Myotubes using Vitronectin as Growth Substrate in Serum-Free Medium,” Biotechnology Progress 23(1): 265-268 (2007).

M. Das, J.W. Rumsey, C.A. Gregory, N. Bhargava, J.F. Kang, P. Molnar, L. Riedel, J.J. Hickman, “Embryonic Motor Neuron-Skeletal Muscle Co-culture in a Defined System,” Neuroscience 146:481-488 (2007).

K. Wilson, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Integration of Functional Myotubes with a Bio-MEMS Device for Non-Invasive Interrogation,” Lab-on-a-Chip 7:920-922 (2007).

M. Das, K. Wilson, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle and Integration of Myotubes with Silicon Microstructures using Serum-Free Medium and a Synthetic Silane Substrate,” Nature Protocols 2(7):1795-1801 (2007).

P. Molnar, J.J. Hickman, “Modeling of action potential generation in NG108-15 cells,” Methods Mol. Biol. 403:175-84 (2007).

P. Molnar P, JF. Kang, N. Bhargava, M. Das and J.J. Hickman, “Synaptic connectivity in engineered neuronal networks.” Methods Mol. Biol. 403:165-73 (2007).

P. Molnar, J.F. Kang, N. Bhargava, M. Das and J.J. Hickman, “Synaptic Connectivity in Engineered Neuronal Networks,” in Patch Clamp Methods and Protocols Humana Press Methods in Molecular Biology Series, (July 2007).

P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Modeling of Action Potential Generation inNG108-15 Cells,” in Patch Clamp Methods and Protocols Humana Press Methods in Molecular Biology Series, (July 2007).


A. Natarajan, P. Molnar, K. Sieverdes, K. Jamshidi and J.J. Hickman, “Multielectrode Recordings of Cardiac Action Potentials as a High Throughput Method to Evaluate Pesticide Toxicity,” Toxicology In Vitro 20(3):375-381 (2006).

D. K Mohan, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman. “Toxin detection based on action potential shape analysis using a realistic mathematical model of differentiated NG108-15 cells,” Biosensors & Bioelectronics 21:1804-1811 (2006).

M. Das, C. Gregory, K. Wilson, P. Molnar, L. Riedel and J.J. Hickman, “A Defined System to Allow Skeletal Muscle Differentiation and Subsequent Integration with Silicon Microstructures,” Biomaterials 27(24):4374-4380 (2006).

S. Krishnamoorthy, J. Feng, A. Henry, L. Locascio, J.J. Hickman and S. Sundaram, “Simulation and Experimental Characterization of Electroosmotic Flow in Surface Modified Channels,” Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 2:345-355 (2006).

D. Henry, K. Lenghaus, K.A. Wilson, M. Hirsch-Kuchma, J. Jenkins, S. Sundaram and J.J. Hickman, “Submonolayer Measurements of Adsorbed Proteins In Microfluidic Channels,” in Bionanotechnology: Proteins to Nanodevices (V. Renugopalakrishnan, Randy V Lewis, Pawan K Dhar), Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Press, (2006).


T. Xu, J. Jin, C. Gregory, J.J. Hickman and T. Boland, “Inkjet Printing of Viable Mammalian Cells,” Biomaterials 26(1):93-99 (2005).

A. Behal, D.M. Dawson, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “The stretch reflex arc: simulation, control and identification” ( (2005)

M. Das, N. Bhargava, C. Gregory, L. Riedel, P. Molnar and J.J. Hickman, “Adult Rat Spinal Cord Culture on an Organosilane Surface in a Novel Serum-Free Medium” In Vitro Cell Dev Biol- Animal 41:343-348 (2005).

J.J. Hickman, “Building Minimalistic Hybrid Neuroelectric Devices,” in Toward Replacement Parts for the Brain: Implantable Biomimetic Electronics as Neural Prosthetic (T.W. Berger and D.L. Glanzman Eds.), 1st edition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (2005).

J.J. Hickman, P. Molnar, M. Hirsch-Kuchma, J.W. Rumsey, K. Wilson “Biosurface Engineering, Cell Patterning,” in Wiley Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation (John G. Webster), 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2005)


T. Xu, S. Petridou, E. Lee, E. Roth, N. Vyavahare, J.J. Hickman and T. Boland, “Construction of High-Density Bacterial Colony Arrays and Patterns by the Ink-jet Method,” Journal of Biotechnology & Bioengineering 85:29 (2004).

E. A. Roth, T. Xu, M. Das, C. Gregory, J.J. Hickman and T. Boland, “Inkjet Printing for High Throughput Cell Patterning,” Biomaterials 25(17): 3707-3715 (2004).

J.K. Evju, P.B. Howell, L.E. Locascio, M.J. Tarlov and J.J. Hickman, “Atmospheric Pressure Microplasmas for Modifying Sealed Microfluidic Devices,” Applied Physics Letters 84(10):1668-1670 (2004).

B. Sweryda-Krawiec, H. Devaraj, G. Jacob, and J.J. Hickman, “A New Interpretation of Serum Albumin Surface Passivation,” Langmuir 20(6):2054-2056 (2004).

M. Das, P Molnar, C. Gregory, L. Riedel and J.J. Hickman, “Long-term Culture Of Embyonic Rat Cardiomyocytes on an Organosilane Surface in a Serum Free Medium,” Biomaterials 25(25):5643-5647 (2004).

F. Jin, J.J. Hickman, K. Lenghaus and R. Marcus, “Total Protein Determinations by Particle Beam/Hollow Cathode Optical Emission Spectroscopy (PB/HC-OES)System II: Improved Sensitivity Through Use of Silica Micro-particles as Carrier Agents for Enhanced Particle Transport,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 19(9):1199-1205 (2004).

F. Jin, J.J. Hickman, K. Lenghaus, R. Marcus, “Total Protein Determinations by Particle Beam/Hollow Cathode Optical Emission Spectroscopy (PB/HC-OES) System III: Investigation of Carrier Salts for Enhanced Particle Transport,” Anal Bioanal Chem. 380 (2):204-211 (2004).

J. Jenkins, B. Prabhakarpandian., K. Lenghaus, J.J. Hickman, S. Sundaram, “Fluidics Resolved Analysis of Protein Adsorption in a Biomicrofluidic System,” Analytical Biochem 331:207-215 (2004).

Select Publications from pre-2004

K. Lenghaus, J. Dale, C. Henderson, D. Henry, E. Loghin and J.J. Hickman, “Enzymes as Ultra-Sensitive Probes for Adsorption in Flow Systems,” Langmuir 19:5971 (2003).

M.S. Ravenscroft, K.E. Bateman, K.M. Shaffer, H.M. Schessler, D.R. Jung, T.W. Schneider, C.B. Montgomery, T.L. Custer, A.E. Schaffner, Q.Y. Liu, Y.X. Li, J.L. Barker and J.J. Hickman, “Developmental Neurobiology Implications from Fabrication and Analysis of Hippocampal Neuronal Networks on Patterned Silane-Modified Surfaces,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 120:12169 (1998).

D.A. Stenger, J.J. Hickman, K.E. Bateman, M.S. Ravenscroft, W. Ma, J.J. Pancrazio, K.M. Shaffer, A.E. Schaffner, D.H. Cribbs and C.W. Cotman, “Microlithographic Definition of Axonal/Dendritic Polarity in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons,” J. Neuroscience Methods 82:167 (1998).

D.R. Jung, D.S. Cuttino, J.J. Pancrazio, P. Manos, T. Custer, R.S. Sathanoori, L.E. Aloi, M.G. Coulombe, M.A. Czarnaski, D.A. Borkholder, G.T. Kovacs, P. Bey, D.A. Stenger and J.J. Hickman, “Cell-Based Sensor Microelectrode Array Characterized by Imaging XPS, SEM, Impedance Spectroscopy, and Cellular Recordings,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A 16:1183 (1998).

A.E. Schaffner, J.L. Barker, D.A. Stenger and J.J. Hickman, “Investigation of the Factors Necessary for Growth of Hippocampal Neurons in a Defined System,” J. Neuroscience Methods 62:111 (1995).

D.A. Stenger and J.J. Hickman, “Lithographic Definition of Neuronal Microcircuits,” in: Enabling Technologies for Cultured Neural Networks (D.A. Stenger and T.M. McKenna, Eds.), 1st edition. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. 77 (1994).

J.J. Hickman and D.A. Stenger, “Interactions of Cultured Neurons with Defined Surfaces,” in: Enabling Technologies for Cultured Neural Networks (D.A. Stenger and T.M. McKenna, Eds.), 1st edition. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. 51 (1994).

B.J. Spargo, M.A. Testoff, T.B. Nielsen, D.A. Stenger, J.J. Hickman and A.S. Rudolph, “Adhesion, Spreading, and Differentiation of Endothelial Cells on Self-Assembled Amino- and Perfluoro-Alkylsilane Monolayers,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91:11070 (1994).

D.A. Stenger, C. Pike, J.J. Hickman and C.W. Cotman, “Surface Determinants of Neuronal Survival and Growth on Self-Assembled Monolayers in Culture,” Brain Res. 630:136 (1993).

J.J. Hickman, G.L. Bergeron, M.A. Czarnaski, and D.A. Kirkpatrick, “Surface Chemistry of TaSi2-Si Eutectic Cold Cathodes and the Effect on Vacuum Field Emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61:2518 (1992).

D.A. Stenger, J.H. Georger, C.S. Dulcey, J.J. Hickman, A.S. Rudolph, T.B. Nielson, S. McCort, and J.M. Calvert, “Coplanar Molecular Assemblies of Amino- and Perfluorinated Alkylsilanes: Characterization and Geometric Definition of Mammalian Cell Cultures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114:8435 (1992).

S.K. Bhatia, J.J. Hickman and F.S. Ligler, “A New Approach to Engineering Patterned Biomolecular Assemblies,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114:4432 (1992).

J.J. Hickman, P.E. Laibinis, D.I. Auerbach, C. Zou, T.J. Gardner, G.M. Whitesides and M.S. Wrighton, “Toward Orthogonal Self-Assembly of Redox Active Molecules on Pt and Au: Selective Reaction of Disulfide with Au and Isonitrile with Pt,” Langmuir 8:357 (1992).

J.J. Hickman and M.S. Wrighton, “Face-Specific Interactions of Anionic Sulfur Donors with Oriented Crystals of (0001) CdX (X = Se, S) and Correlation with Electrochemical Properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113:4440 (1991).

J.J. Hickman, D. Ofer, P.E. Laibinis, G.M. Whitesides and M.S. Wrighton, “Molecular Self-Assembly of Two-Terminal, Voltammetric Microsensors With Internal References,” Science 252:688 (1991).

J.J. Hickman, D. Ofer, C. Zou, M.S. Wrighton, P.E. Laibinis and G.M. Whitesides, “Selective Functionalization of Gold Microstructures with Ferrocenyl Derivatives via Reaction With Thiols or Disulfides: Characterization by Electrochemistry and Auger Electron Spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113:1128 (1991).

P.E. Laibinis, J.J. Hickman, M.S. Wrighton and G.M. Whitesides, “Orthogonal Systems for Self-Assembled Monolayers: Alkanethiols on Gold and Alkane Carboxylic Acids on Alumina,” Science 245:845 (1989).

J.J. Hickman, C. Zou, D. Ofer, P.D. Harvey, M.S. Wrighton, P.E. Laibinis, C.D. Bain and G.M. Whitesides, “Combining Spontaneous Molecular Assembly with Microfabrication to Pattern Surfaces: Selective Binding of Isonitriles to Platinum Microwires and Characterization by Electrochemistry and Surface Spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111:7271 (1989).